By Prof. Moses Galukande

What commonly goes wrong with the Gall bladder?

To start with, the gall bladder is a sac like organ, found beneath and attached to the liver. Its primary job is to store bile manufactured from the liver to be used in the digestion of fat. Upon ingestion of fat, the gallbladder releases the bile in it through an adjoining duct (tube) into the small intestines, specifically a part of the small intestines called the duodenum. The bile mixes with the fat, cuts it down into bits that the rest of the intestines can absorb into the body for use.

One of the commonest afflictions of the gallbladder is the formation of stones in it. These stones are a mix of salts and other debris that is filtered through the liver. When these stones sit in the gall bladder, they rub into its wall (inner lining) and induce inflammation. Inflammation translates into pain in the upper part of the abdomen just below the rib cage on the right. Tissue inflammation consists of swelling, congestion, heat and redness, all these happen on the inside of the abdomen in the gall bladder. Once the inflammation sets in, each time after a meal is ingested, the action of releasing bile from the gall bladder will induce intense pain. Avoiding fatty meals rests the gall bladder and therefore reduces the pain attacks. This inflammation may be made worse by a bacterial infection superimposing on the presence of stones. Occasionally, it is also possible to have inflammation with no stones.

The risks for developing gall stones include, but are not limited to the female gender, commoner among women, mostly in their forties, women who have had children and are overweight. Men are not exempted, though. The other associated risk factors are an excess of fat in the blood commonly known as cholesterol. To find out if you have high cholesterol is by doing a laboratory test called a lipid profile.

What a patient with gallstones is likely to complain about, is pain in the upper abdomen, worsened by taking a fatty meal. Though often most mistake these symptoms for ‘ulcers’ and therefore would have ‘eaten’ a lot of antacids before an ultrasound reveals the presence of gallstones; because occasionally ‘ulcers’ co-exist with gall bladder diseases, an endoscopy is performed to exclude  this possibility. Endoscopy is a specialized gadget used to inspect the inside of the food pipe, stomach and intestines.

Once present and symptomatic (causing trouble), the permanent solution is to take out the entire gallbladder with the stones. Removing only the stones without the gall bladder will certainly end up in a recurrence (stones forming again).

Now days, there are two options of removing the gallbladder with its stones, the open method where a large incision is made on the tummy, up to 10-15cm and option two is  keyhole also called minimally invasive or laparoscopic surgery, where a couple of tiny 1cm each stab incisions are used.

For the majority of patients, the surgery goes well and all symptoms resolve and life goes back to normal. Both options the open and keyhole are ably done in Uganda. There is now sufficient expertise and equipment in several hospitals.


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26th May 2022

To our est​​eemed clients,

International Medical Group is undergoing a name change and is being rebranded to “C-Care”, and as our trusted and reliable client in our endeavours, I wanted to keep you apprised of the exciting proceedings.

C-Care” is a multi-national healthcare group based in Mauritius and listed on the

Mauritian Stock Exchange that is part of a multi-sector company, Ciel Ltd, operating across Africa and Asia.

Accordingly, all of our subsidiaries will be rebranded under:

  1. International Hospital Kampala will become C-Care IHK

  1. International Medical Centre will become C-Care IMC

We are pleased to add the following brands to our growing portfolio

  1. C-Labs.

  1. C-Pharma.

We are augmenting our capacity to deliver quality healthcare services by expanding and improving our facilities, programs and services. It is my sincerest hope that you will embrace the exciting upcoming changes as we launch “C-Care” and remain the dependable client you have always been. Your continued collaboration is as important to us now as ever before. Thank you for your support and we take the next step in revolutionising medical care in the region.

Yours faithfully,

Sukhmeet Sandhu




Tel: +256 (0) 312 200 400

Fax: +256 414 345 768

P.0 Box 8177, Kampala, Uganda

Plot 4686, St. Barnabas Road, Kisugu- Namuwongo





By Prof. Moses Galukande

Beverage simply means a drink other than water. Although there are several, tea and coffee are most popular nonalcoholic beverage globally.

After water, tea is the most popular drink in the world. Tea is made by pouring hot water over cured tea leaves. This popular beverage can be enjoyed hot or cold, and can bring different health benefits. Tea plants mostly grow in Asia, but tea is enjoyed in many countries around the world.

There are over 3000 varieties of tea, each with its own specific characteristics. The naming and growing of teas is in many ways similar to wine. Just as Bordeaux wine is named after the Bordeaux region in France many teas are also named after the area they are grown in.

The other popular hot beverage is coffee, though Ugandans do more tea than coffee.

Some history of the most popular nonalcoholic beverages

Tea: The history of tea dates back to ancient China, almost 5,000 years ago. According to legend, in 2732 B.C. Emperor Shen Nung discovered tea when leaves from a wild tree blew into his pot of boiling water. He was immediately interested in the pleasant scent of the resulting brew, and drank some.

Coffee: The history of coffee begins in legend. According to one legend, ancestors of today’s Oromo people in a region of Jimma in Ethiopia were the first to recognize the energizing effect of the coffee plant. A one Kaldi in Ethiopia in  the 9th-century discovered the stimulating effect of coffee when he noticed how excited his goats became after eating the beans from a coffee plant goes another legend, probably both of doubtful authenticity, although widely circulated as being true.

Is there any danger of taking hot beverages?

Yes , danger number one ; Whether you are preparing, serving, or drinking a hot beverage, scalds can occur as a function of exposure time and temperature of the liquid.

When I was growing up tea was served hot, and if not piping hot the older family members would ask for it to be rewarmed or rather re- boiled.

In some countries including China, Iran and those in South America, where teas such as the bitter herbal infusion mate are traditionally drunk at extremely high temperatures — above 65 or 70 degrees Celsius.

Danger number two; There is also some evidence that longstanding consumption of “very hot” beverages (60 degrees Celsius and above may increase the risk of esophageal cancer. Oesophageal cancer is cancer of the food pipe. It is one of the cancers the difficult cancers to successfully treat.  Whereas hot beverages are not the number one risk factor, it should be avoided. In 2016, the World Health Organization issued a report that found; drinking “very hot” beverages of any kind could potentially raise the cancer risk, and it classified them as “probably carcinogenic” to humans.

Advice on hot beverages

While there are plenty of reasons to enjoy drinking tea or any other beverage, you may want to let that piping hot beverage cool down a bit before you take a sip.

How do I know it is that hotter than recommended without dipping a thermometer in my cup at table?

In general, hot water is 54 Celsius or above. Warm water is 32 to 43C. Cold water is generally between 15 and 27 C.

If you want to form a very rough idea of whether water is cold, lukewarm, or hot, first hold your hand above the water. If you feel heat radiate off of the water, it is hotter than recommended and may burn you. If you feel no heat, the water will either be room-temperature or cold.

What are the advantages of taking acceptably hot tea or water?

Drinking water, hot or cold, keeps your body healthy and hydrated. Some people claim that warm water specifically can help improve digestion, relieve congestion, and even promote relaxation, compared with drinking cold water.

How hot are the beverages when served?

Often times, in commercial places or even homes hot beverages are served at temperatures near their brewing temperature; far hotter than recommended.

A more rationale practice is to let them sit for a while to cool before serving them.

What to do after hot beverages are served?

Mixing very hot beverages with cooler beverages. Even small amounts of mixing can have significant effects. For instance, cooled coffee could be mixed into a hot, freshly brewed coffee to reduce temperature without dilution. Alternatively, milk, creamer, or other cooler liquids could be added as appropriate.

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International Hospital Kampala opened its refurbished and revamped outpatient department which will serve as its first point of contact for patients and medical employees.

Speaking at the opening ceremony, the International Medical Group CEO Sukhmeet Sandhu explained that the newly opened OPD has been reinvigorated to improve patient experience  by providing reliable healthcare, improved process flow with more space to comfortably accommodate patients.

He further explained that opening of the new OPD comes as a result of feedback from their clients and the hospital consequently acted in their interests.

Joel Oroni, the IHK General Manager says the new OPD is suitable for minor surgery procedures and is manned by expert technicians, medical specialists and is  equipped with the latest Machinery, and modern medicines that fall in line with  the hospitals synchronization with  advancements in technology and the medical world.

He added that the new facility will also serve as a training ground for medical, para-medical , nursing staff and future doctors.

Also important to note is that the IHK General Manager says, the new outpatient department is ideal for accident related emergencies and will curate a database of medical history and research depending on the frequency of one’s visits.

On Saturday 22nd January 2022, International Hospital Kampala (IHK) had the first successful procedures of Uterine Fibroid Embolization done led by Dr. Josiais Padi from Merit International South Africa and Dr. Hassan Kabiito from IHK.

Fibroids occurs predominantly in women of African descent and in Uganda, many women of reproductive age have fibroids. Uterine Fibroid embolization treatment offers an alternative safe and effective nonsurgical procedure to women of all ages in need of fibroid treatment.

In his statement, “Dr Kabiito said, “Many patients hold the myth the surgery is the only treatment option of resolving fibroids but In Uganda, we now have a purely non-surgical procedure, minimally invasive with faster recovery. If you have symptomatic fibroids, this procedure is a viable option”

“There is a new unique procedure called uterine fibroid embolization which is an alternative to the commonly known surgery to remove fibroids (myomectomy). Embolization means targeted cutting off of blood supply to a particular part of the body.” He added

Uterine fibroid embolization typically provides significant relief of symptoms of uterine fibroids. Your menstrual period may continue on its normal schedule and if they are heavy, they will normalize. The fibroids shrink and are tracked on serial scans upon review. The length of time it takes for the fibroids to shrink depends on their size.

Patients hold the myth the surgery is the only treatment option of resolving fibroids but in Uganda, International Hospital Kampala now has a purely non-surgical procedure, minimally invasive with faster recovery. If one has symptomatic fibroids, this procedure is a viable option

This type of treatment, treats all sizes and numbers of fibroids because it is targeted therapy that aims at the fibroids that can selectively be reached no matter the size and number.

The success rate for this treatment is about 98 per cent but there is a small percentage of women whose fibroids cannot be killed with UFE because they have an additional blood supply from the ovarian arteries in addition to the uterine artery. In many patients, this procedure suffices, and you will not need the surgery.

Since its inception in 2000, IHK has pioneered in several national medical procedures including the first open heart surgery, laparoscopic (keyhole) surgery, Laser Surgery and ERCP.


February 14th, 2022  Peter Mulindwa, IHK Manager Marketing & Communications

Many couples date as they seek to understand and become compatible with each other. As the relationship grows from regular dates in public places to meeting friends and family, gain approval, show confidence and trust in each other.

Relationships have no standard way, starting, thriving or ending way but they are mostly glued by love and trust. One way to gain trust is being open about one’s private life including their health. Couples that aim for lasting relationships ought to pay attention to this.

Some places of worship in Uganda have made it mandatory for couples to fulfil certain requirements before getting marriage among which is having medical test done and revealed to each other before saying taking their vows.

HIV and other non-remediable conditions

Diseases like Hepatitis B and C, HIV will continue through life and need to be managed properly. Knowing your partner’s health status helps you protect yourself. Additionally, patients suffering from these conditions require care all through their life.

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) such as  Syphilis and Gonorrhea, can be treated properly if diagnosed early to reduce on the risks of miscarriages and infertility in marriage.

Blood Grouping

Dr. Sam Lubulwa a family physician at International Hospital Kampala advises that “couples should know their blood types to start with to limit their risk of complications during pregnancy”. There are different blood types such as O, A and B with Rhesus (RH) factors that are either positive or negative. RH incompatibility is one of the risk factors leading to jaundice and in some instances intra-uterine death during pregnancy. It is therefore important that couples test for blood group before formalizing their relationships.

Sickle Cell disease

Sickle cell disease is a health condition caused by a deficiency in the Red Blood Cells. The Red Blood Cells are shaped just like a sickle which affects their ability to pass through blood vessels to supply oxygen to the different parts of the body. An absence of enough oxygen in the body may cause other chronic health issues faced by most Sickle Cell patients. There is a 50% chance in every pregnancy when two partners carrying the Sickle Cell genes marry each other. On the other hand, a Sickle Cell patient can marry a person who has no genetic traits of the disease. Their children would only be carriers of the gene.

Other hereditary diseases

Marriage often requires a lifelong commitment from both the partners. Knowing each other’s medical history is also part of knowledge you should have before getting married. A test to check for inherited or hereditary diseases allows early detections and helps the couple to seek medical treatment before the diseases advance. Common conditions linked to family history include DiabetesCancerhigh blood pressureCholesterol issues, Coronary conditions an Kidney Failures.

Premarital checkup is important although not having it done before marriage doesn’t mean you can’t get it done later. The idea is to know your partner and his or her health status to be prepared for any complications that may crop up later in life.

International Hospital Kampala has numerous wellness packages for couples such as the Premarital testing and Preconception testing for men and women aimed at improving the health and lifestyle choices of couples and families. It takes only 15 minutes for these checkups to be done when you visit the Hospital.

Visit www.ihk.img.co.ug/wellness for more information about wellness packages.

Monday 19th July 2021

On 16th May 2021 Asha Mary Simon 30, was 25 weeks pregnant, expecting to go through a normal pregnancy, little did she know that she would give birth sooner than expected. On the morning of 17th May after life threatening events, she was able to deliver four babies following an emergency C-section procedure at IHK. Asha delivered 3 girls and a boy having had an IVF procedure because she had been trying to conceive for 8 years without success.

A handful of children born at 25 weeks barely make it through their first 24 hours in Uganda. At 25 weeks, the baby normally weighs about 660 grams, the brain and the nervous system may not be fully developed. These neonates are prone to infections and breathing difficulties because their lungs are not fully developed to produce surfactant and so is their gut which is not fully developed to enable digestion. Neonates at 25 weeks often experience anaemia and jaundice caused by immature bone marrow and liver, respectively. They would battle to survive due to immature vital organs. Most of them die.

The chances of survival for a neonate delivered at that age are very minimal and mostly depend on the environment and hospital where they are delivered. They require functional neonatal facilities and specially trained neonatal nurses and a paediatrician with specialist training in management of babies born prematurely also known as a neonatologist. Fortunately, these children were delivered at International Hospital Kampala, a hospital with these facilities and staff available to support these delicate lives. They were born weighing 720grams to 760 grams which was slightly above the expected weight according to UK standards.

Asha lost the last 2 babies after 9 and 25 days because of immature organs that could not support their lives even with technological support. She remained with the first 2 girls who have battled through growing from 25 weeks to 34 weeks and gaining up to 1.1kg more than their birth weight. At the time of discharge, the babies weighed 1.8Kgs and had a normal head circumference among other key growth indicators.

Dr. Shiba K. Nahurira, the head of Paediatrics at IHK was thankful to the doctors, midwives, Intensive Care Unit and Neonatal Care Unit staff who received the babies and supported them through the tough days for their dedication and commitment towards the survival of these children. She thanked Mary Asha and her family for remaining strong and not giving up even when there was little hope for survival. Dr. Shiba thanked Dr. Victoria Nakibuuka the consultant Neonatologist for guiding the team through the process. Further, a team of nurses and midwives who offered to express their milk which was used to feed the babies was recognised for their selflessness.

Dr. Victoria Nakibuuka congratulated Asha upon discharge and thanked her for her support and the IHK team for taking care of these neonates with dedication and love. She asked Asha to be an advocate for Kangaroo Mothercare which she did faithfully with guidance from the medical team to see these babies through. Dr. Dennis Muyaaka the Paediatrician who received these babies at birth also thanked Asha for her commitment and patience without which these two would not have survived. The hospital handed over a few items to the mother to celebrate this milestone and indicate their support to the family.

Asha Mary Simon the mother was very grateful to God and to IHK for not sending her away like other hospitals she had been to when she needed emergency services. She was very thankful to the Doctors and nurses for their guidance and support. She indicated that it was her first time to get treatment at IHK and that she had been impressed by the level of care and love towards patients that the team had from the day she was admitted.

IHK is one of very few hospitals in Uganda with a fully functional Neonatal Intensive Care unit and a team of trained and experienced Neonatal nurses. Every year in November IHK joins the world to celebrate and raise awareness about children born prematurely. The hospital is committed to support expectant mothers who may experience challenges during pregnancy including delivering their children prematurely.

Article by Peter Mulindwa, Photography by Timothy Nkwasibwe

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Founded in the year 2000, IHK is the Largest Private Hospital
in Uganda.


Tel: +256 312 200 400
Email: ihk@img.co.ug
Emergency: +256 772 200 400
Emergency: +256 712 200 400


We are the only COHSASA accredited Hospital in Uganda and one of the two in East Africa.

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